Peniarth 33 (Hengwrt 47): An Electronic Edition. TEI header
Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC)
Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE. 0117 987 6500
Peter Wynn Thomas, D Mark Smith, Diana Luft
Peniarth 33: An Electronic Edition
A note on editorial principles
Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol aims to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1450. The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350. The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions. Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.
In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible. Visual features such as layout and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.
The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of a scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it, both in oral and written contexts. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, a 'sic' tag has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.
In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area. In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.
The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the National Library of Wales in 1993. As we have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation, accompanying materials, colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.
Source descriptionSettlement: AberystwythLle: Aberystwyth
Repository: National Library of WalesLlyfrgell: National Library of Wales
Shelf-mark: Peniarth 33Mynegrif: Peniarth 33
The manuscript contains a copy of Cyfreithiau Hywel Dda or The Laws of Hywel Dda in the version that Aneurin Owen identified as the Dimetian code or Dull Dyfed, now referred to as Llyfr Blegywryd. The manuscript was consulted though not used extensively byAneurin Owenin his edition of the of the Dimetian code in his Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, and is referred to as Manuscript M in that edition and in the subsequent literature. The text in Peniarth 33 is closest in both expression and organisation to that presented by Williams and Powell (1942). There is a lacuna in the text at 32.18.
Order of Pages
|iv||Notes in the hand of the person responsible for most of the marginalia (?Aneurin Evans) noting the locations of a number of tracts in the manuscript||?Evans|
|v||Signature of William Morris (Guilhemu[m] Mauricium), dated 1662, who claims to have copied this manuscript for Robert Vaughan. This page also contains Aneurin Owen’s designation for the manuscript: ‘B. 47’||Morris|
|vi||Mixed notes on the contents of the manuscript, perhaps in the same hand as the notes on page iv||unknown|
|vii||Note in the hand of ?J. Gwenogvryn Evans on Aneurin Evans’s dating of the manuscript||?Evans|
|1-186||Cyfreithiau Hywel Dda||A|
The following texts were consulted during transcription:
- Richards, Melville (1957). Cyfreithiau Hywel Dda o Lawysgrif Coleg yr Iesu Rhydychen LVII. Caerdydd. [CHDd]
- Williams, Stephen J. a J. Enoch Powell (1942). Cyfreithiau Hywel Dda yn ôl Llyfr Blegywryd (Dull Dyfed). Caerdydd. [LlB]
We have used both of these editions for supplied text.
Notes in a number of modern hands precede the manuscript and are bound with it:
- iv: Notes in the hand of the person responsible for most of the marginalia (?Aneurin Evans) noting the locations of a number of tracts in the manuscript
- v: Signature of William Morris (Guilhemu[m] Mauricium), dated 1662, who claims to have copied this manuscript for Robert Vaughan. This page also contains Aneurin Owen’s designation for the manuscript: ‘B. 4’
- vi: Mixed notes on the contents of the manuscript, perhaps in the same hand as the notes on page iv
- vii: Note (?in the hand of J. Gwenogvryn Evans) on Aneurin Evans’s dating of the manuscript
The text is written in medieval Welsh.
The text is written in a single column of 23-25 lines to each page.
There are two systems of foliation to be found in the top right corner of each recto page, one (seemingly earlier) counting each folio and the other (?in the hand of J. Gwenogvryn Evans) counting each page. We have applied the latter system.
The manuscript was produced at the end of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth centuries in Wales (Huws 2000: 60).
Peniarth 33 was acquired by Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt (1592-1667). It is not known from where Vaughan obtained most of his manuscripts, but according to a story in the writings of Edward Lhuyd he inherited those in the possession of John Jones of Gellilyfdy on Jones’s death about 1658 (Tibbott 1943: iv). The Hengwrt manuscripts were catalogued in 1658 by William Maurice of Cefnybraich, Llansilin (Jones 1943: xvi). The manuscript was bequeathed by Sir Robert Williames Vaughan (d. 1859), the last baronet of Hengwrt, to his friend William Watkin Edward Wynne (1801-1880) of Peniarth in 1859, along with the rest of the Hengwrt collection (Tibbott 1943: viii).
The Hengwrt catalogue was revised by Aneurin Owen (d. 1851), and then by William Watkin Wynne. This catalogue was published in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1869-1871 (Jones 1943: xv). It was catalogued and re-numbered by J. Gwenogvryn Evans when he examined the collection for the Historical Manuscripts Commission along with the rest of the Peniarth manuscripts, while in the possession of W.W.E. Wynne’s son, William Robert Maurice Wynne (d. 1909). The Peniarth collection was secured for the nascent National Library of Wales by Sir John Williams, who, in 1904, paid the Wynne brothers a sum to ensure the reversion of the collection to the Library upon the death of both brothers. The manuscript passed, along with the rest of the collection, to the Library in 1909 (Tibbott 1943: viii).
The manuscript is written in a fourteenth or fifteenth century rounded textura hand of an unidentified scribe.
Letter formsMedial <a>
The uses both regular and medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital, and is commonly found at the beginning of clauses and nouns.Dotted <y>
The scribe uses both regular and dotted <y>. The dotted <y> seems to be purely decorative with no phonological trigger for it as opposed to the undotted variant. The latter is slightly more common with capital letters than with small ones.Capitals and semi-caps
The difference between some of the capitals and small forms can be slight. This is especially so when the capital is simply a slightly larger version of the small form. Examples of such capitals are:
- <W> 166.13, 171.24
- <Y> 135.17, 137.7
This scribe often writes <t> in a very similar way to <c>, such that it is almost impossible to tell which letter is meant. We have transcribed the letters as they appear on the page, appending a ‘sic’ tag when necessary.Ligatured <cc>, <tc> and <tt>
The scribe writes ligatured <cc>, <tc> and <tt> in such a way that they are almost indistinguishable form one another. Examples are:
- anrecca 19.15
- breccan 137.22
- dycco 59.6
- datcana6d 25.3
- datcanu 24.15
- beitto 30.19
- dotter 11.5
The orthography of this scribe does not differ substantially from expected forms. Apparent examples of <c> for <t>may be due to the way the scribe forms these characters. Examples are:
- <pech> ‘peth’
- <reich> ‘reith’
- <6rch> ‘wrth’
The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms:
- macron for <n>: bar[n] 108.5; brenhi[n] 8.6, 8.11, 10.13, etc.; bre[n]hin 23.24, 28.7, 30.15 etc.; ca[n]h6ynna6l 112.9; kynydyo[n] 15.23; ky[n]ntaf 89.1; eme[n]yd 32.2; 54.10; erby[n] 85.24; var[n] 78.13; vre[n]hines 32.12; goua[n]yaeth 63.9; hanffo[n]t 65.19; ha[n]ner 112.16; ny[n] 79.7; s6ydogyo[n] 26.3; yga[n]: 30.13, 91.2; tysto[n] 106.1;
- macron for <m>: cha[m]l6r6 59.8; ka[m] 80.2, 80.22, 97.5 etc.
- � for <er>: h[er]6yd 22.3; 63.11; roth[er] 63.11, 99.4
- e above a letter for <re>: t[re]f 48.17; t[re]is 128.4; t[re]myc 46.15
- <i> above a letter for <ri>: c[ri]p 72.24; p[ri]oda6r 150.1, 150.6, 150.24 etc.
- <9> for <ur>: wneuth[ur] 133.15
The following commonly occurring word is also frequently abbreviated:
- kyf[reith] 28.13, 49.4, 83.19, 186.3 etc.
Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus. Rather unusually, the punctus elevatus is far more common than the punctus.
The punctus often appears in pairs. This doubled form may be difficult to distinguish from the punctus elevatus, and many examples could be interpreted as either.
There are some marginalia in the manuscript. These have not been included in the transcription.
One marginalium is by the main scribe:
- 182 BM: hynny: gudyho blaen (main scribe)
The other items are in a later hand, possibly that of Aneurin Owen. These items contain a unique character, �.
- 31 RM.7: Bard teylu
- 32 LM.19: Pen Kerd
- 33 RM.2: gerd?1or??
- 49 RM.8: 11
- 53 LM and 54 RM: numerals in the margin reflect the numbers in the text
- 55 RM.10: vled (Aneurin Owen)
- 55 RM.21: Mach
- 56 LM.5: balawc fechin
- 56 LM.22: corn y bren[hin].
- 60 LM.3: ymladd
- 69 RM. 20: Mut
- 72 inline.5 to bach over the <a> in <than>
- 72 LM.23: Arian bath
- 73 RM.8: Abo .i. cadayre
- 88 inline.6, 7 and 9: numerals .1. .2. .3. written above items in triad
- 90 LM.13-14: 3. Brawdwr Ho[wel]. Dda
- 91 RM.8: 15 niwrnod
- 98 LM.2: Ho[wel]. da
- 98 LM.8: senedd
- 101 RM.5: Cynnenhusson
- 104 LM.12: Gwarant diball
- 106 LM.12: Adnau llyuyr Cynawc cit. *
- 106 BM: * lsg. hagen fod yn +1y+0 iawn y gredu ef or dygyr y da ef yn lladrad
- 107 RM.9: Tayogau
- 107 RM.16: 8. Bynfarch brenin
- 108 LM.6: lluydd brenin
- 108 LM.22: Cerdorion
- 112.1 TM: ieit (correction of <vilaeint>)
- 112 LM.21: Nawdwr bren[hin] Gwaesafwr
- 113 RM.2: Ty Ta^n
- 113 RM.19: Odyn biben
- 114 LM.1: Hely bren[hin]
- 117 RM.12: Canis
- 121 RM.1: Apes Mel.
- 122 LM.8: Mudaw (" over this word and <vuda6> in the text indicate that this marginalium is meant to explain the form founhd in the text)
- 122 LM.13: Aelodeu dy^n.
- 123 RM.7: crist
- 125 RM.14: taldwrch
- 125 RM.21: Pencenedl
- 126 LM.5: Bonh[edic] Gynh[wynawl]
- 129 RM.10: engi
- 130 LM.2: a.
- 130 LM.6: yscar
- 134 LM.11: Gwynedd Deheu
- 135 RM.10: K[yfreith]. Ho[well]; Dda.
- 140 LM.20: Vide ?1Pravd?? y ?1yn??ad Goronwi uab Moridic
- 142 LM.2: B.15 Gwestfa brenin
- 142 LM.9: doliu[m]
- 144 LM.13: 6 dawnbwyd
- 145 RM.19: Dadyl am dir
- 147 RM.12: Mess[ue] Rhandir
- 148 LM.6: Dadanudd
- 148 LM.9: gorescyn
- 148 LM.23: Carr
- 149 RM.3: Baich
- 151 RM.1: Ach
- 155 RM.5: Anafus
- 157 RM.11: weryd iddaw (suggested correction for the text’s <werytewn>)
- 157 inline: 11: werendewir (suggested correction for the text’s <werytewn>)
- 158 LM.22: 3. Prid.
- 159 RM.14: llys y Pab
- 166 LM.10: Mynyw
- 166 LM.12: 7. Esgobty yn Dyfed
- 171 RM.22: Llo
- 173 RM.18: llo gwryaw
- 176 LM.24: Ebol
- 177 RM.18: Amws
- 178 LM.17: lliw lledrad
- 178 LM.24: Casseg
- 179 RM.8: Teithi march
- 180 LM.12: Oen
- 180 LM.189: Myn
- 181 RM.2: gro6yn
- 181 RM.21: Rhys ap Gruffuth arbennic Deheubarth
- 182 LM.18: Cath
- 183 RM.14: gwyd
Catchwords are occasionally found in the bottom right hand corner of the page. Others may have been cut out during binding.
- 8 <ida6>
- 135 <ny>
- 137 <arn>
- 141 <theu>
- 155 <gu>
The decoration consists in the main of large decorated initials in red and green ink.
In some places where there are coloured initial letters, the scribe has indicated what the letter should be, and this smaller form appears behind the initial. The <P> at 165.18 is an example.
In some cases the person responsible for filling in the decorated initials has missed one and only a space indicates where such a letter should be. Examples are:
- <O> 24.20
- <E> 112.3
- <P> 129.23
- <L> 178.1, 186.3
- <G> 183.4
- <B> 185.22, 185.24, 186.2
In some cases the person responsible for filling in the decorated initials has filled the space with the wrong letter. Examples are:
- <B> (for <V>) 4.21
- <N> (for <Y>) 54.19
- <M> (for <N>) 128.8
- <T> (for <C>) 120.4
- <P> (for <O>) 159.21
- <P> (for <Ff>) 184.24
The manuscript is difficut to read in places because of fading and staining.
In some places it is clear that the scribe has skipped from one line to another because the same word appears in successive lines. Modern published editions of the text from other sources make apparent the aberrant reading in this manuscript. Examples are:
|43.9-10||yn teir rann y rennir ar y reia etat a e vam a e vrodyr a e whioryd||yn teir ran y renhir ar y reia'etalho. Y ran gyntaf a discyn ar y llofruda'etat a'e vam a'e vrodyr a'e chwioryd (LlB 31.16-17).|
|51.16-17||kyt as dyccocha6chtystolyaeth ll6. Elch6yl y bernir y r ty:ston ar eu llw||Kyt dyccoch awch tystolyaeth arawchgeir, nys kedernhewch arawchllw. 6lchwyl y bernir y'r tyston�(LlB)|
|67.13-14:||Teir palua6t nydyd kat a brwydyr||Teir paluaut nydiwygir: vn arglwyd ar y wr ynn y reoli yndydcat a brwydyr (LlB)|
|119.2-3:||os raculaenn hol y diwedid. ac eu kylchynu||or raculaenha yr yscrybyl y bore a dyuot yn euhol y diwedyd ac eu kylchynu (LlB)|
|133.6-8:||a charreit o r yt goreu a tyuo ar tir y tat;a hynnyyn lle blwydyn idi Odyna y tat a dyly||a charreit o'r yt goreu a tyfho ar tir y tat;ahynnya perthyn y'r tayogeu. Mab bonhedic a dylyir y vagu val hyn: mam y mab gyssefin a'e hymduc naw mis yn y chroth, a thri mis gwedy ganher hi a'e mac,a hynnyyn lle blwydyn idi; odyna y tat a dyly (LlB)|
|152.4-6:||y brenhin a e awyrda teruynad6y yr6g dylyeda6c ac andilyeda6c||y brenhin a'r gwyrda teruynadwyvyd. Ac ny dylyir arhos nawuetdydrwg dylyedawc ac andylyedawc (LlB)|
Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:
- Evans, J. Gwenogvryn (1898-1910). Peniarth 33. Report on manuscripts in the Welsh Language, 1: 334-6. London.
- Huws, Daniel (2000). Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff.
- Jones, E.D. (1943). Old Catalogues of the Hengwrt Manuscripts. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1: xv-xxiii. Aberystwyth.
- Tibbot, Gildas (1943). A Brief History of the Hengwrt-Peniarth Collection. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1: i-xiv. Aberystwyth.