The material has been transcribed separately.
Pennyn y Fenter Amgodio Testunau (TEI) ar gyfer Llsgr. Amwythig 11
: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500
Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas
Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith
Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft
- : Shreswbury, England
- : Shrewsbury School
- : 11
The manuscript contains a collection of religious texts, including the earliest copies of the Horae Beatae Mariae Virginis (Gwasanaeth Mair) in Welsh and De Spiritu Guidonis (Ysbryd Gwidw). Some folios have been mis-bound in this last text. Their proper order should be: 66-68, 71-78, 69-70, 79-82, 83. Neil Ker (1992: 300) suggests that this collection is related to texts in the manuscript which now makes up Bangor 1, Peniarth 191 and Llanstephan 200 (Llyfr Melangell). See Huws 2002 on this manuscript.
|i||Medieval flyleaf (recto) containing notes on ownership in later hands||unidentified|
|ii||Medieval flyleaf (verso) containing text in a 16th-century Anglicana hand||unidentified|
|1-52||Gwasanaeth Mair||Shrewsbury hand A|
|52-3||Gweddi Boneffas Bab||Shrewsbury hand A|
|53-54||Enaid Crist||Shrewsbury hand A|
|54-66||Pa ddelw y dylai dyn gredu i Dduw||Shrewsbury hand A|
|66-82||Ysbryd Gwidw, misbound, with several folios out of place||Shrewsbury hand A|
|lacuna in text, folios missing|
|83||Ysbryd Gwidw, misbound, with several folios out of place||Shrewsbury hand A|
|83-4||Efengyl Ieuan||Shrewsbury hand A|
|85-100||Ystoria Adda||Shrewsbury hand A|
|100-18||Y Groglith||Shrewsbury hand A|
|118-34||Elen a’r Grog||Shrewsbury hand A|
|134-43||Breuddwyd Pawl||Shrewsbury hand A|
|143-8||Deongl Terfynau'r Byd||Shrewsbury hand A|
|148||Latin text overwritten by upside-down Welsh text in the hand of the main scribe, not transcribed||Shrewsbury hand A|
|149-150||Two pages of Gwasanaeth Mair in 16th-17th-century hand, not transcribed||later|
The following texts were consulted during transcription:
- Jenkins, J. 1920. Medieval Welsh Scriptures, Religious Legends and Midrash. THSC. 121-9.
- Jones, John Morris and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1894. Py Delw y dyly Dyn credv y Duw. The Elucidarium and Other Tracts in Welsh from Llyvyr Agkyr Llandewivrevi. Oxford: The Clarendon Press. 141-6
- Jones, T. Gwynn. ed. 1931. Spiritus Guidonis. BBCS 5. 102-112.
- Jones, Thomas. ed. 1952. Dehongyl Teruyneu y Byt. BBCS 14. 8-11.
- Parry-Williams, T. H. ed. 1926. Breuddwyd Pawl. BBCS 3. 81-89.
- Roberts, Brynley. ed. 1957a. Tri chyfieithiad Cymraeg o’r weddi 'Anima Christi'. BBCS 16. 268-71.
- Roberts, Brynley. ed. 1957b. Gweddi Bonnefas Bab. BBCS 16. 271-3.
- Roberts, Brynley. ed. 1961. Gwassanaeth Meir. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.
- Thomas, D. R. ed. 1902. Euegyl Jeuan. The Life and Work of Bishop Davies and William Salesbury. Oswestry: Caxton Press. 130-2
- Williams, Robert. ed. 1892a. Y Groglith. Selections from the Hengwrt MSS.. London: T. Richards. 250-8
- Williams, Robert. ed. 1892b. Val a gauas Elen y Groc. Selections from the Hengwrt MSS.. London: T. Richards. 258-66.
Supplied text is drawn from the above editions.
There are three systems of foliation in this manuscript:
- In black ink in a modern hand in the top right corner of many recto pages, though not appearing consistently, and beginning with 9 on the present page 7. Many of these numbers have been crossed out in pencil, presumably by the person responsible for the second system of foliation.
- In pencil in a modern hand in the top right corner of each recto page numbering each folio beginning with 2 on the second page (the top right corner of the first folio is missing).
- In black ink in a modern hand in the top centre of each recto page, numbering each page beginning with 1.
We have followed the third and most recent system of foliation.Catchwords are occasionally found in the bottom right hand corner of the page; others may have been cut out later as a result of the process of binding. All catchwords are in the hand of the main scribe unless otherwise noted. Examples may be seen at: 16: ẏ ỽẏneb, 48: kyflaỽnaf
The manuscript is generally in good condition and is legible throughout. The top right quarter of the first folio has been ripped out. Between pages 68 and 83 some folios have been bound in the wrong place. The proper order should be: 66-68, 71-78, 69-70, 79-82, 83.
The text is written in a single column of 20 lines to each page.
This scribe uses both regular and medial <a>. The medial <a> often serves almost as a capital and is commonly found at the beginning of names and clauses.
The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his predecessors, or his patron used it.
The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms. Examples are:
- macron for <n>: hỽn[n] 8.2, 79.5, 84.2; ame[n] 8.18; gorchymy[n]naỽd 20.4; bo[n]hedigyon 21.19; Gogonya[n] 31.8, 34.15; y[n] 32.19; etc.
- macron for <m>: y [m] 27.20
- <i> above a letter for <ri>: p[ri]or 67.13, 67.18, 68.14; g[ri]st 140.16, 145.14, 146.8; anc[ri]st 146.9, 147.2
- <2> for <re>: p[re]ssennaỽl 56.9
- <9> for <u>: gwnaeth[ur] 54.10
- <9> for <us>: enryded[us] 54.10; drugar[us]: 65.13
- <p> with a tail for <pro>: p[ro]ffỽydaỽl 91.11; p[ro]ffỽyt 113.5
- <p> with a crossed tail for p<e>: gosp[er] 40.18
The scribe also uses less common abbreviations for frequently occurring names and words:
- <A[men]>: 7.20
- <A[ntem]>: 7.13
- <ant[em]>: 22.14, 37.16
- <Anan[ia]>: 17.14
- <argl[wyd]>: 42.13
- <Azar[ia]>: 17.14
- <b[ryssya]>: 27.20
- <Cabid[wl]>: 37.17
- <k[ymorth]>: 27.20
- <d[afy]d>: 47.12, 48.8, 48.10
- <dau[yd]>: 32.15, 38.10
- <don[yawc]>: 50.13
- <effeir[at]>: 24.8
- <g[lan]>: 11.1, 14.4, 14.20
- <Gog[onyant]>: 15.13
- <Gogon[yant]>: 33.5, 34.2, 37.15
- <g[wae]>: 139.20
- <G[widw]>: 69.3, 70.3, 70.6
- <h[yt]>: 35.8
- <Jeu[an]>: 24.8
- <m[ab]>: 11.1, 25.14, 31.19
- <M[arwawl]>: 60.15, 61.1, 61.5
- <M[egys]>: 7.12, 15.13, 22.13
- <Meg[ys]>: 4.15, 6.9, 37.2
- <M[isael]>: 17.14
- <P[awl]>: 138.20, 140.12, 141.4
- <P[echawt]>: 60.15, 61.1, 61.5
- <P[rior]>: 69.2, 70.2, 70.5
- <R[inwed]>: 63.13, 63.17, 64.5
- <t[at]>: 31.19, 40.3, 40.14
- <v[edydywr]>: 24.8
- <y[spryt]>: 11.1, 14.4, 14.20
Punctuation consists of the punctus and the punctus elevatus.
The ornamentation consists in the main of large decorated initials in red ink.
There are some marginalia in later hands in the manuscript which have not been included in the transcription:
- 45.BM: 'Llyma lyfyr gwilim Sion o blwyf llangrallo tyst o William Dafydd y nai ac o d[afyd]d ap Iefan'
- 46.TM: 'Magnificat'
- 53.BM: 'and I William Jhons'
- 62.TM: 'chwechet'
A medieval fly-leaf bound at the front of the manuscript contains notes and signatures in later hands:
- Thomas Williams Lanblethian in Com Glamorgan his Booke
- The Gift of My Son Morgan to Me Ebenezer Myscell 1755
- Note that Mr. Edward Lloyd of thee Museum declared that this was the oldest Booke of Divinity he ever saw In ye Anteint British language
The manuscript was produced at the end of the fourteenth or the beginning of the fifteenth century in Wales (Huws 2000: 60).
Notes in the manuscript indicate that it was in the possession of Gwilim Sion of Llangrallo (Coychurch), as witnessed by his nephew William Dafydd and by Dafydd ap Iefan (p. 45), and that it was also owned by William Jhons (p. 53).
A note on page i states that it was in the possession of the antiquary Thomas Wilkins of Llanblethian (1625/6-1699), and it was probably there that Edward Lhuyd (1660-1709) gained access to it on his 1697 tour of south Wales. A note on the same page states that Lhuyd had declared it to be the oldest Welsh book of divinity that he had come across.
Another note on page i states that the volume was given to Ebenezer Mussell by his son Morgan in 1755. Ebenezer Mussell was a justice of the peace who lived in Bethnal Green (a building in Tower Hamlets bears his name: Ebenezer Mussel House). His daughter Elizabeth married Thomas Wilkins Morgan (b. 1726), the Sheriff of Somerset. Thomas Wilkins Morgan was the son Cann Wilkins (b. 1702) and his second wife, Mary Sparrow. Cann Wilkins was the eldest son of Thomas Wilkins of Llanblethian and his wife, Anne Cann (Pine 1952), and must have received the manuscript from him (Ker 1992: 301).
The manuscript was first recorded in the Shrewsbury School Catalogue in 1788.
Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:
- Evans, J. Gwenogvryn. 1898-1910. Shrewsbury School 11. Report on manuscripts in the Welsh Language 1. London: HMSO. 1127-8.
- Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
- Huws, Daniel. 2002. Llyfr Llyfr Defosiynol. Llên Cymru 25. 21-27.
- Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
- Jenkins, R. T. ed. 1959. Wilkins. Dictionary of Welsh Biography down to 1940. London: Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion. 957.
- Ker, Neil. 1992. Shrewsbury School 11. Hours, etc. (in Welsh). Medieval Manuscripts in British Libraries 4. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 300-1.
- Pine, L. G. ed. 1952. de Winton formerly of Graftonbury. Burke’s Genealogical and Heraldic History of the Landed Gentry, 17th edition. London: Burke's Peerage.
The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.
The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.
The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.
Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.
In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.
Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.
The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.
In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.
In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.
The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the digital reproduction of the manuscript produced by Mark Barrett and Alun Jenkins for Cardiff University in 2007. As we have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the scribal hands, foliation and accompanying materials of the manuscript should be treated as provisional.
- 25-Jan-2011 DL: edited TEI header
- 16-Aug-2007 – 17-Aug-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
- 18-Jul-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
- 10-Jun-2007 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
- 14-May-2007 – 8-Jun-2007 DMS: corrected electronic transcription of pages 1-148
- 14-May-2007 – 8-Jun-2007 DMS: checked transcript of pages 1-148 against prints
- 14-May-2007 – 8-Jun-2007 DMS: transcribed pages 1-148 with shortcuts