The material has been transcribed separately.
Pennyn y Fenter Amgodio Testunau (TEI) ar gyfer LlGC Llsgr. Peniarth 47 rhan i
: Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Whitefriars, Lewins Mead, Bristol BS1 2AE 0117 987 6500
Principal Investigator: Peter Wynn Thomas
Transcribed and encoded by D. Mark Smith
Transcribed and encoded by Diana Luft
- : Aberystwyth
- : National Library of Wales
- : Peniarth 47i
- : Hengwrt 27B
NLW Peniarth 47 is a composite manuscript, containing three originally separate manuscripts.
Part one of the manuscript was originally Hengwrt 27B; part two was originally Hengwrt 540C, dated by Daniel Huws (2000: 61) to the first half of the fifteenth century; and part three was originally Hengwrt 540D and Hengwrt 411, dated by Daniel Huws (2000: 61) to the middle of the fifteenth century. Hengwrt 540A and Hengwrt 540B are now bound with Peniarth 6.
This document concerns only the first part of the manuscript, part one, or Hengwrt 27B; parts two and three fall outside of the remit of the present project.
There is a great deal of additional material bound with the manuscript, including letters by scholars attempting to clarify its complex organisation and the whereabouts of its miscellaneous parts, and materials used in binding.
Pages i-xv verso consist of material related to the manuscript in the form a series of letters in English between the nineteenth century Welsh scholar the Reverend Robert Williams and William Watkin Wynne, owner of the Peniarth manuscripts. There are also notes on the manuscript in the hand of Egerton Phillimore.
Pages 1r–3v consist of a fragment of Brut y Brenhinoedd in an unidentified textura hand of the fourteenth or fifteenth century, ending with a Latin note in another unidentified anglicana hand of the fifteenth or sixteenth century. This material was used for binding the manuscript and has not been included in this transcription.
Pages 1-26 consist of fragments of Ystoria Dared, the Welsh translation of the text De excidio Troiae historia ascribed to Dares Phrygius. This leads Daniel Huws (2000: 49) to suggest that this manuscript may originally have been meant to form a single volume along with NLW Peniarth 46, which contains a copy of Brut y Brenhinoedd in the hand of the same scribe.
|i r-iii v||blank|
|iv r||Note on contents giving the Hengwrt and Peniarth designations in a modern hand||?J. Gwenogvryn Evans|
|v r||Note on contents giving the Hengwrt designations of all parts of the manuscript, and giving the then whereabouts of Hengwrt 540A and Hengwrt 540B, in a modern hand||?J. Gwenogvryn Evans|
|vi r||Note on Hengwrt 27B, stating that it had been kept with NLW Peniarth 46; in a modern hand||?J. Gwenogvryn Evans|
|vii r-viii r||Letter from the Reverend Robert Williams to William Watkin Wynne dated 23.12.1863||Robert Williams|
|viii v-ix v||blank|
|x r-xi r||Letter from the Reverend Robert Williams to William Watkin Wynne dated 9.12.1863||Robert Williams|
|xi v-xii v||blank|
|xiii r||Note in the hand of Egerton Phillimore, on the similarity between Hengwrt 540 and the Didrefn Gasgliad (Llanstephan 1 and Llanstephan 2)||Egerton Phillimore|
|xiii v||Note in the hand of Egerton Phillimore on Hengwrt 540D and the Didrefn Gasgliad (Llanstephan 1 and Llanstephan 2)||Egerton Phillimore|
|xiv r||Note in the hand of the Reverend Robert Williams on the contents of Hengwrt 540C dated 30.11.1864.||Robert Williams|
|xiv v||Stamped envelope addressed to the Reverend Robert Williams and dated 25.11.1864||unknown|
|xv r-xv v||blank|
|1r-3v||Fragment of Brut y Brenhinoedd in an unidentified 14th century rounded textura hand used in binding, not transcribed||unknown|
|3v||Latin note in an unidentified 16th century anglicana hand, not transcribed||unknown|
|1-12||Ystoria Dared, incomplete||X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)|
|13-20||Ystoria Dared, incomplete||X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)|
|21-24||Ystoria Dared, incomplete||X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)|
|25-26||Ystoria Dared, incomplete||X90 (the Anchorite of Llanddewibrefi)|
The following texts were consulted during transcription:
- Evans, J. Gwenogvryn and Rhŷs, John. eds. 1890. Ystorya Dared. The Text of the Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. Oxford: J.G. Evans. 1-39.
- Owens, B. G. ed. 1951. Y fersiynau Cymraeg o Dares Phrygius (Ystorya Dared): eu tarddiad, eu nodweddion, a’u cydberthynas. M.A., Aberystwyth.
Text missing from the damaged pages has been supplied from Owens (1951). Owens himself filled these gaps by comparing his text with that of NLW Peniarth 314 (Hengwrt 293) part 2, a sixteenth century manuscript in the hand of John Jones of Gellilyfdy.
There are several systems of foliation in the top right corner of each recto page. Most of these are difficult to follow as this section of the page is missing in several cases. However, page numbering from 1 to 26 is found consistently in black ink in a modern hand and we have followed this system.
Besides missing a number of pages, the manuscript has sustained damage to the remaining pages, the inner margins of which are considerably darkened and, from pages 13 to 26, made illegible by holes or rips beginning at the top and extending a little more than half-way down each page. There is also possible repair to the top right hand corner of page 1.
The fragments of the text of Ystoria Dared are out of order in the manuscript. The proper order is:
- pages 1-13, lacuna
- pages 17-20, lacuna
- pages 21-24, lacuna
- pages 13-14, 25-26, lacuna
- pages 15- 16, lacuna
The text is written in a single column, with 22 lines to each page.
Medial <a> tends to occur immediately following the punctus. It is easily distinguishable from the capital form of the letter, but the difference between it and the common form may be slight.
The difference between some of the capitals and semi-caps may be slight. This is especially so when the capital is simply a slightly larger version of the small form. Examples of such semi-capitals are:
- <Y> 7.20, 12.20, 13.13, 13.17, 22.7, 24.15
Though words are separated by clearly distinguishable spaces throughout most of the manuscript, in some places it is not clear whether sequences are to be taken to represent one word or two.
The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his predecessors, or his patron used it.
While the scribe is relatively consistent in his spelling of some of the many names in the text, especially those that appear more commonly, such as <agamemnon>, <alexandyr>, <ychel>, and <ector>, there is a great deal of variation in the less common names. Those names and their variants are collected here, along with their counterparts from the text of the Ystoria Dared as edited by J. Gwenogvryn Evans in The Text of the Bruts from the Red Book of Hergest. The names are listed in alphabetical order:
- <anchinen> (RBH antinoes) 6.11
- <boecia> (RBH Moesia) 17.14
- <boetino> (RBH basio) 20.6
- <lespea> (RBH lepseus) 6.17
- <poemia> (RBH phoenia) 1.14
- <selia> (RBH cilia) 19.22
- <trachea> (RBH drasia) 20.4
- <ynys y telyn> (RBH ynys cithara) 2.19, 3.8
- <adarascus> (RBH adarroscus) 20.10
- <aiax uap olem> (RBH Eiax olileus) 8.6
- <aiax thelanius> (RBH Talamon) 8.8
- <amaxo> (RBH amazons) 15.15
- <ascani[us]> (RBH antipus) 20.5
- <boetius> (RBH epitrophius) 20.6
- <Dared frigius> (RBH Dared groec) 7.3
- <enopesius o larisa> (RBH o laricia ypodocus) 20.3
- <eufrans> (RBH teuffras) 17.14, 17.16, 18.1, 18.9
- <vlcanus> (RBH alcamus) 20.4
- <filemeres o pafca> (RBH obabiliaconia filomenes) 20.6
- <ffindartus> (RBH f6nclarus) 19.22
- <meidon> (RBH Meiryon) 9.3
- <mener uap perser> (RBH perses ameiryomen) 20.7
- <neptalemus> (RBH Neocolonus) 8.19
- <neptolemus> (RBH pyrr) 16.5, 16.7, 16.13, 16.16
- <p[er]ssis vap admesti> (RBH presses uab menestius) 23.16, 23.18
- <polidarius> (RBH Pilodarius) 9.1
- <pholidamas> (RBH pholidamantem) 1.18
- <porthius> (RBH aphrosius) 20.5
- <sceleneus> (RBH ipicius) 22.2
The text contains a number of common abbreviations. These have been expanded in the transcription to the forms that are given elsewhere in the text itself rather than to standard or dictionary forms. Expansions are denoted visually. Examples are:
- macron for <n> or <m>: 1.1, 1.11, 1.15, 2.7, 3.11, 3.21, 5.3, 10.12, 11.1, 12.8 etc.
- <9> for <us>: anryded[us] 9.11, 9.17; maỽrvryd[us] 9.17
- <’> for <er>: v[er]ch 10.18; p[er]ssis: 24.16, 24.18
- <’> for <yr>: alexand[yr] 2.4, 2.8, 2.19, 3.2, 3.4, 3.11, etc.; vrỽyd[yr] 13.5
- <i> above the preceding letter for <ri>: g[ri]assant 21.1; p[ri]af 1.8, 3.4, 3.5, 5.7, 5.9, etc.; t[ri]st 4.21
- <3> for <bus>: deiphe[bus] 20.15
The scribe may also abbreviate the following commonly occurring name:
- <agamem’> for <Agamemnon>: 13.1, 13.12, 13.22, 25.1, 25.21, 26.5, etc.
The punctus is the only punctuation mark used in this text; it may occur at the end of clauses.
In two places – 18.15 and 22.2 – the scribe has written two words in the wrong order, and then corrected the text by adding the sign " above each of the words in question to show that their order should be reversed.
A number of pages contain ornamentation in the margins. The ornamentation is usually associated with a large decorated coloured initial, and consists of a series of line-drawn scrolls that populate the left and occasionally top margins. Examples can be seen on pages 1, 5, 7, 9 and 12.
The only other ornamentation in the manuscript consists of rubricated paragraph marks and large decorated initials. In some places the scribe has added an indication in the form of a hyphen where a paragraph mark should be placed but the rubricator has apparently failed to follow up, leaving only the hyphen. Examples are to be found on pages 6.13, 10.9, 10.13, 19.2 and 20.13. There are other slightly faded examples on pages 7.19 and 10.15.
Notes in a number of modern hands precede the manuscript and are bound with it:
- iv r: Note on contents giving Hengwrt and Peniarth designations in a modern hand
- v r: Note on contents giving the Hengwrt designations of all parts of the manuscript, and noting the whereabouts of Hengwrt 540A and Hengwrt 540B, in a modern hand
- vi r: Note on Hengwrt 27B, stating that it had been kept with Peniarth 46; in a modern hand
- vii r-viii r: Letter from the Reverend Robert Williams to William Watkin Wynne dated 23.12.1863
- x r-xi r: Letter from the Reverend Robert Williams to William Watkin Wynne dated 9.12.1863
- xiii r: Note in the hand of Egerton Phillimore, on the similarity between Hengwrt 540 and the Didrefn Gasgliad (Llanstephan 1 and Llanstephan 2)
- xiii v: Note in the hand of Egerton Phillimore on Hengwrt 540D and the Didrefn Gasgliad (Llanstephan 1 and Llanstephan 2)
- xiv r: Note on the contents of Hengwrt 540C in the hand of the Reverend Robert Williams dated 30.11.1864
- xiv v: Stamped envelope addressed to the Reverend Robert Williams and dated 25.11.1864
- 1r-3v: Fragment of Brut y Brenhinoedd in an unidentified fourteenth century rounded textura hand, used in binding
- 3v: Latin note in an unidentified sixteenth century anglicana hand
The manuscript was written in Wales in the middle of the fourteenth century (Evans 1898-1910: 380, Huws 2000: 59).
NLW Peniarth 47 was acquired by Robert Vaughan of Hengwrt (1592-1667). It is not known where Vaughan got most of his manuscripts, but according to a story in the writings of Edward Lhuyd (Tibbott 1943: iv) he inherited those in the possession of John Jones of Gellilyfdy on Jones's death about 1658. The Hengwrt manuscripts were catalogued in 1658 by William Maurice of Cefnybraich, Llansilin (Jones 1943: xvi). The manuscript was bequeathed by Sir Robert Williames Vaughan (d. 1859), the last baronet of Hengwrt, to his friend William Watkin Edward Wynne (1801-1880) of Peniarth in 1859, along with the rest of the Hengwrt collection (Tibbott 1943: viii).
The Hengwrt catalogue was revised by Aneurin Owen (d.1851), and then by William Watkin Wynne. This catalogue was published in Archaeologia Cambrensis, 1869-1871 (Jones 1943: xv). The manuscript was catalogued and re-numbered by J. Gwenogvryn Evans when he examined the collection for the Historical Manuscripts Commission along with the rest of the Peniarth manuscripts, while they were in the possession of W.W.E. Wynne’s son, William Robert Maurice Wynne (d.1909).
The Peniarth collection was secured for the nascent National Library of Wales by Sir John Williams who, in 1904, paid the Wynne brothers a sum to ensure the reversion of the collection to the Library upon the death of both brothers. Along with the rest of the collection, the manuscript passed to the Library in 1909 (Tibbott 1943: viii).
Information on the dating and hand of this manuscript is based on the following authorities:
- Evans, J. Gwenogvryn. 1898-1910. Peniarth 47i. Report on manuscripts in the Welsh Language 1. London: HMSO. 380-1
- Huws, Daniel. 2000. Medieval Welsh Manuscripts. Cardiff and Aberystwyth: University of Wales Press and the National Library of Wales.
- Huws, Daniel. A Repertory of Welsh Manuscripts and Scribes. draft.
- Jones, E. D. 1943. Old Catalogues of the Hengwrt Manuscripts. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales. xv-xxiii.
- Owens, B. G. 1951. Y fersiynau Cymraeg o Dares Phrygius (Ystorya Dared): Eu tarddiad, eu nodweddion, a’u cydberthynas. M.A.,Aberystwyth.
- Tibbot, Gildas. 1943. A Brief History of the Hengwrt-Peniarth Collection. Handlist of Manuscripts in the National Library of Wales 1. Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales. i-xiv
The Welsh Prose 1350-1425 website is the product of an AHRC funded research project undertaken by staff at the School of Welsh, Cardiff University from 2004 through 2007 called Corff Electronig o Ryddiaith Cymraeg Canol. The aim of this project was to produce machine-readable editions of all the medieval Welsh prose texts which have been preserved in manuscripts dating from c.1350 to c.1425.
The project is a continuation and a development of two previous projects funded by the University of Wales which transcribed the Welsh prose in manuscripts dated to c.1250-c.1350.
The intention is to give scholars access not only to texts that have hitherto remained unedited but also to the different versions of texts that have been the subject of critical editions.
Certain decorative features have been encoded: these may trigger further study of the original manuscripts. Primarily, however, the resource provides detail which it is hoped will further the study of the language and literature of the period.
In producing this edition, we have attempted to fulfil two different and often non-complementary if not opposing goals: to present a minimally edited edition of the text, and to represent as many visual features of the manuscript as possible.
Visual features of the text such as layout, and rubrication may prove to be as essential in textual interpretation as features such as punctuation, letter forms, capitalisation and word division, which are more usually invoked by scholars in the field.
The orthography of the original text has been maintained, even where it is idiosyncratic, as the unique characteristics of the scribe's spelling may shed light upon the language of the period as he, his audience, or patron used it. Where the scribe's orthography seems to merit particular attention, an editorial gloss has been added to indicate what we believe to have been the target form.
In some places, especially where the manuscript is damaged, we have supplied text. This serves the two-fold purpose of presenting a complete text and, perhaps more importantly, of indicating the size of the damaged area.
In order to make editorial intervention as transparent as possible, supplied text is clearly marked off from the manuscript text by a different font. Also in the spirit of editorial transparency, we have wherever possible used published editions for supplied text. Text supplied from published editions may suffer from obvious errors or significant differences in orthography from the manuscript text. We have refrained from imposing our own editorial actions on such features.
The transcription of this manuscript, as well as the information in this TEI header, is based on the microfilm reproduction of the manuscript produced by the National Library of Wales in 1994. As we have not checked the transcription against the original, information on the matters such as colour scheme and ornamentation should be treated as provisional.
- 21-Jan-2011 DL: edited TEI header
- 8-Oct-2007 PWT: edited TEI header
- 14-May-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
- 2-Apr-2007 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
- 13-May-2006 PWT: edited XML encoded files, produced table of corrections and amended where necessary
- 17-May-2005 DL: converted Word files with shortcuts into XML files and corrected them
- 9-Aug-2004 – 11-Aug-2004 DL: corrected electronic version of folios 17-26
- 9-Aug-2004 – 11-Aug-2004 DMS: corrected electronic version of folios 1-16
- 5-Aug-2004 – 10-Aug-2004 DMS: checked DL's transcript of folios 17-26 against prints
- 4-Aug-2004 – 10-Aug-2004 DL: checked DMS's transcript of folios 1-16 against prints
- 4-Aug-2004 – 9-Aug-2004 DL: transcribed folios 17-26
- 3-Aug-2004 – 9-Aug-2004 DMS: transcribed folios 1-16 with shortcuts